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《水路医学》中英文对照版连载之005(7)

2019年06月02日 10:23来源:未知手机版编辑:康之原

再说“癌”病,它在医药学文献中出现的时代,最早记录它是在汉文帝时代的淳于意记载过胃癌的病例。到了12世纪初,宋代东轩居士著《卫济宝书》中,当中一段对乳癌描述很清楚,认识到40岁以上的妇女易患此症,溃烂不出3年必死等。到了公元1617年《外科正宗》对乳癌描述更加具体完整,说它初起像豆子、棋子般大小时,在两三年内没有痛痒,长大则疼痛,再长如栗子堆聚则难治。到了清朝对癌症病详细阐述的文献就很多了,如《疡医证治准绳》中提到,癌症病能推动的可以手术割去,推之不动的不可手术切除。

癌症是肿瘤的一种,而肿瘤早在我国三千多年前的殷墟甲骨文就有了“瘤”的病名。可以说是人类史上最早发现与防治肿瘤的国家,可见我们祖先高超的智慧已对疾病开展斗争了。到了两千多年前《黄帝内经》中对肿瘤作了明确的分类。记载了肠瘤、筋瘤等病名。到了1700多年前,三国时候,出现了名医华佗。他治疗腹内结块大病时,在用针刺与药物不及时,就创造了“麻沸散”给病人全身性麻醉,切开腹腔,手术割掉其结块的方法。此之“结块”可能就是现在所说的肿瘤。公元7世纪《晋书》记载景帝眼睛上长瘤,太医是用手术的方法给他治好的。《神农本草经》还详细记载有斑蝥主治“恶疮疽,蚀死肌”,现代医学有用它提取斑蝥素治疗肝癌、肺癌、食道癌疗效好。可见在历史的长河中,我们的祖先已对肿瘤等疾病的治疗积累了丰富的经验。

Besides, " cancer" disease, which appeared in the medical literature, was the earliest recorded case of gastric cancer in Chunyu Yi in the Chinese emperor era. By the beginning of the 12th century, a paragraph in the book of weijibao written by dong Xuan jushi of the song dynasty clearly described breast cancer, recognizing that women over 40 years old are vulnerable to the disease and die within three years of festering. By 1617 ad, " surgical authentic" had a more detailed and complete deion of breast cancer. it said that when it started as a bean or chess piece, it had no pain in two or three years. when it grew up, it was painful, and when it grew as long as chestnuts piled together, it was difficult to treat. In the Qing dynasty, there were many documents detailing cancer diseases, such as the " criteria for selecting medical treatment" which mentioned that cancer diseases can be removed by surgery and those that cannot be removed by surgery.

Cancer is a kind of tumor. as early as 3,000 years ago in our country, Oracle bone inions in yin ruins had the name of " tumor". It can be said that it was the first country in human history to discover and prevent tumors. it can be seen that our ancestors had fought against diseases with great wisdom. More than 2,000 years ago, theYellow Emperor's Internal Classic clearly classified tumors. The names of intestinal tumors, tendon tumors and other diseases were recorded. More than 1700 years ago, a famous doctor Hua tuo appeared in the three kingdoms. When he was treating intra-abdominal lumps, he created the method of " hemp boiling powder" to give general anesthesia to the patient, cut open the abdominal cavity, and cut off the lumps by surgery when acupuncture and drugs were not used in time. This " agglomeration" may be what is now called a tumor. The Jin book in the 7th century A D recorded that emperor Jing had long eyes. In the Book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic , it is also recorded in detail that Mylabris is the main treatment of "sore gangrene, erosion of the dead muscle." Cantharidin is used in modern medicine to treat liver cancer, lung cancer and esophageal cancer. It can be seen that in the long history, our ancestors have accumulated a wealth of experience in the treatment of tumors and other diseases.

从现在医学病理解剖学看“癌”肿形状也吻合古人造字之意。肿物的包块上大都是呈“山峰”或“菜花”状。各种仪器检查报告单上,几乎都是同一个结论:“肿块边缘不清晰”“欠光滑”,“包膜不完整”“肿块不规则”“模糊”“毛刺”“凹凸不平” 或“回声不均匀”等字样。这说明它的包块没有收口的时候,会继续快速生长。它非常贪欲,据生长部位不同,有的能从粟粒大小,迅速可长到几斤甚至几十斤重还不罢休,如腹腔恶性或是“良”中变恶的肉瘤。有的刚刚开始萌发不大,就会致人死亡,如脑、胰腺、胆管、骨髓癌等。

Judging from the current medical and pathological anatomy, the swollen shape of " cancer" also tallies with the meaning of ancient Chinese characters. The mass of the tumor was mostly " peak" or " cauliflower". Almost all the examination reports of various instruments have the same conclusion: " the edge of the lump is not clear," " not smooth," " the envelope is not complete," " the lump is irregular," " fuzzy," " burrs," " uneven" or " uneven echo." This shows that its mass will continue to grow rapidly when it is not closed. It is very greedy. depending on the growth site, some can grow from the size of corn to several catties or even tens of catties without stopping, such as malignant sarcoma in the abdominal cavity or malignant sarcoma in the " good". Some have just begun to germinate, causing death, such as brain, pancreas, bile duct, bone marrow cancer, etc.